Tag: Climate Change

  • Reducing CO2: Conversion Factors

    Reducing CO2: Conversion Factors

    There is a simple way of reducing CO2 emissions year on year without having to put any effort in at all. It requires no changing of habits, reduction in energy use or in fact any changes at all. Just by continuing to use the same amount of energy each year a reduction in carbon production […]

  • Component and Service Scales

    Component and Service Scales

    Systems change over time and space, it is unavoidable. To manage resilience, understanding that systems change across and influence multiple scales is needed. Scales above the focal system are also significant to maintaining resilience.

  • Permafrost – Inuvik, Canada

    Permafrost – Inuvik, Canada

    Permafrost is a thickness soil or bedrock beneath the surface that has been permanently frozen for at least 2 years, with mean ground temperatures less than 0ᵒC. (Holden, 2008; Davis, 2001). Continuous and Discontinuous are the two main types. Washburn (1979) indicates that up to 26% of the Earth is affected by permafrost. Most of […]

  • Introduction


    Interaction between humans and their environment is unavoidable. Every decision and action taken has an environmental consequence. Outcomes range in spatial and temporal significance and can be beyond our immediate environment.